Het goede voorbeeld van Scorsese


Inspirerende pleidooien voor het behoud van het filmerfgoed





We staan voor de taak de herinnering aan oude films levend te houden, als onderdeel van de filmkunst (‘patrimoine artistique’) of als onderdeel van een audiovisueel erfgoed (de visuele cultuur, de geschiedenis van de representatie), als onderdeel van het wereld erfgoed (‘world heritage’) of als onderdeel van het nationaal erfgoed (de lokale identiteit, ook filmmakers zijn te beschouwen als ‘erflaters’ van onze beschaving).
 
Film Foundation & World Cinema Foundation
Filmregisseur Martin Scorsese kreeg belangstelling voor conservering in de jaren zeventig, toen hij de oorspronkelijke versie van onder andere ONCE UPON A TIME IN THE WEST (Sergio Leone, 1968) en IL GATTOPARDO (Luchino Visconti, 1963) wilde zien, maar er waren destijds geen goede kopieën beschikbaar.
 
In 1990 nam Martin Scorcese het initiatief tot de oprichting van de Film Foundation: Film Makers for Film Preservation, met hulp van onder andere Woody Allen, Stanley Kubrick, Sydney Pollack, Robert Redford Francis Coppola, George Lucas en Steven Spielberg.
Zie www.film-foundation.org.
 
Tijdens het festival van Cannes 2007 kondigde Scorsese de oprichting aan van de ‘World Cinema Foundation’ en presenteerde meteen drie restauraties. Sindsdien is er elk jaar een nieuw oogst van restauraties van “verwaarloosde films”.
Zie: http://worldcinemafoundation.net/.
 
 “Film is geschiedenis en film is kunst en moet worden bewaard. (-) Film is zo mooi, maar zo kwetsbaar. Het is gemaakt van licht. Er gaan honderden miljoenen in de filmindustrie rond, maar tot voor kort dacht niemand er over na hoe dit alles te bewaren”.
 
 
A PERSONAL JOURNEY THROUGH AMERICAN MOVIES (1995, 225 min).
  1. "Director as Storyteller" analyzes the growth of distinctly American genres like the Western, the Musical and the Gangster film. Scorsese shows how changing attitudes caused these genres to evolve and take film to a darker, more challenging and morally ambiguous territory.
  2. "Director as Smuggler" examines the evolution of film noir, arguably the most influential post-war American film genre, in a cynical and bitter post Second World War America.
  3. "Director as Illusionist" studies the impact technical and technological innovations have had,
  4. "Director as Iconoclast" shows how rebel filmmakers destroyed the old production codes with their bold, innovative and challenging work.
Bron: http://apolloguide.com/mov_fullrev.asp?CID=237&Specific=1887
 
Scorsese, M. & M.H.Wilson, A Personal Journey with Martin Scorsese Through American Movies, London: Faber, 1997.
 
 
IL MIO VIAGGIO IN ITALIA (1999, 246 min) / My Voyage to Italy.
 
"No history book about Italian cinema (and there have been several quite good ones) can accomplish what Martin Scorsese does in this four-hour documentary. For My Voyage To Italy brings the extraordinarily rich tradition of this national cinema to life by placing it in the socio-historical context in which it was made and the personal context in which Scorsese saw these films for the first time while growing up in New York's Little Italy. Vivid, perceptive, and surprisingly analytical, Scorsese's landmark documentary is named after Rossellini's 1953 film, Voyage In Italy (aka Strangers), which was a fiasco at the time, but was later rescued and re-evaluated by Cahiers Du Cinema, and is now considered one of the great films of all time.
 
[...] Deviating from most documentaries of its kind, My Voyage is not structured as a historical survey, but as a focused auteurist expose of each film-maker's background, recurrent thematic concerns, greatest films, the socio-economic circumstances in which they were made and the director's singular vision. Hence, the first film-maker to be discussed is Rossellini and the two films chosen are Rome, Open City (Roma Citta Aperta, 1945) and Paisan (Paisa, 1946). For each segment, Scorsese uses an approach that could be described as 'explication du text', singling out one or two long sequences and analysing in detail the way they evolve by calling the viewer's attention to the specific style used: camera movement, framing, acting and how all these elements combine to create a powerful emotional impact that cannot be reduced to any single factor.
 
[...] The organising principle that divides the documentary into parts is often the director's career rather than any strict chronology. Hence, Scorsese follows De Sica's career after his neo-realist pictures, dwelling on his 1930s and then 1950s and 1960s comedies, as an actor and director, specifically The Gold Of Naples (1954), featuring the young and voluptuous Sophia Loren as a pizza maker's philandering wife and De Sica as zealous cardplayer upstaged by a young boy.
 
Scorsese then segues into a long chapter about Visconti, and how his aristocratic background not only deviated from that of the other Italian filmmakers, but also made his work richer, more complicated and complex, due to his Marxist leanings and Communist Party membership. Visconti is a particularly interesting figure, not only due to his controversial status among scholars, but also because he is credited for making what is considered to be the first neo-realist film, Obsession (Ossessione, 1942, based on James Cain's The Postman Always Rings Twice) before moving as far away as possible to a grand operatic style with Senso (1954) and The Leopard (1963). Here, too, one expects Scorsese to mention that his own adaptation of Age Of Innocence was an homage of sorts to Visconti's striking colour productions of epic yet flamboyant proportions.
 
The most direct link between Scorsese's own work and an Italian maestro is in the wonderfully narrated segment on Fellini, whose I Vitelloni (1953, aka The Young And The Passionate, or The Loafers) is not only responsible for Scorsese's breakout film, Mean Streets, but accounts for many American buddy-buddy and hang-out films, including Barry Levinson's best work to date, Diner. Other links that are left for the viewer to make are the influence of Fellini's frequent collaborations with Marcello Mastroianni, who served as his alter ego, and Scorsese's own creative pairings with Robert De Niro in what are arguably his best and most personal films: the trilogy of Mean Streets, Taxi Driver and Raging Bull.
 
Although eloquent and informative, the discussion about Antonioni's bravura cinema, and his manipulation of time and space as expressions of his metaphysical characters in such films as L'Avventura, La Notte, and Eclipse, is not as personal as that on Rossellini. This is perhaps due to the pain (and empathy) that Scorsese feels for the cruel decline in Antonioni's career and stature, due to changing cinematic trends and personal scandals (first with Hollywood star Ingrid Bergman, then with Indian screenwriter Somali Das Gupta, both of whom bore his children out of wedlock).
 
My Voyage ends most fittingly with a tribute to Fellini's undisputed masterpiece, 8 1/2 (1963), which Scorsese describes as an international film event, a self-reflexive surrealist meditation on the plight of the artist in modern time whose inventive blend of dreams and nightmares, fantasy and reality, forever changed the nature of narrative cinema.
 
The true test of a good documentary is whether it motivates the viewer to know more about its subject matter. My Voyage To Italy achieves that and more: it reaffirms the urgent need to record the glorious chapters of world cinema for future generations of viewers, and it also validates the still undeniable power of cinephilia, now in vast decline, among a small coterie of movie lovers."
 
Bron: www.screendaily.com/my-voyage-to-italy-il-mio-viaggio-in-italia/407264.article.
 
Aanbevolen link ter aanvullling:
http://themovieprojector.blogspot.com/2011/01/my-voyage-to-italy-1999.html

Nederlandse recensies
" In hoog tempo vertellend is Scorsese tegelijkertijd filmliefhebber, filmkenner en bewonderend collega. Soms een los beelddetail verklaren, een andere keer de kunsthistorische betekenis van een film toelichtend. En altijd het onbedwingbare verlangen oproepend om zelf die ene film opnieuw te gaan zien." 
Francois Stienen, in: de VPRO-gids 41 (12 oktober 2002), p 19.

Overige Nederlandstalige recensies:
 
Voor een kritische bespreking zie: