Digitization of Film Exhibition: A Chronological Bibliography

Digitization of Film Exhibition: A Chronological Bibliography
Peter Bosma
update March 2016
1.1 Some recent and relevant publications on digital cinema distribution and exhibition.
1.2 International analysis of copyright and digital cinema exhibition.
1.3 Digitalization, Digitization and Film Heritage.
2.1 Film Distribution.
2.2 Relevant websites (digital film exhibition and distribution).
2.3 Looking back in melancholy.
2.4 Some documentaries about cinemas. 

1.1. Some recent and relevant publications on digital cinema distribution and exhibition.
(This list is in chronological order)
# recommended reading route for starters: Harbord (2002), Rodowick (2007), Lobato (2012), Bordwell (2012), Tryon (2013).

·       Hayward, Philip & Tana Wollen (eds.) (1993), Future Visions: New Technologies of the Screen, London: BFI.
·       Elsaesser, Thomas & Kay Hoffmann (ed.) 1998, Cinema Futures – Cain, Abel or Cable? The Screen Arts in the Digital Age, Amsterdam: Amsterdam UP.
·       # Harbord, Janet (2002) Film Cultures, London: Sage Publications.
·       Shaw, Jeffrey & Peter Weibel (eds.) (2003) Future Cinema: the Cinematic Imaginary After Film, Cambridge: MIT Press.
·       Culkin, Nigel & Keith Randle (2003) ‘Digital Cinema: Opportunities and Challenges’, in: Convergence: The Journal of Research into New Media Technologies vol. 9, no. 4 (Winter 2003) pp. 79-98, Special Issue on Digital Cinema.
·       Barlow, Aaron (2004) The DVD Revolution: Movies, Culture, and Technology. New York: Praeger.
·       Boddy, William (2004) ‘Redefining the Home Screen: Technological Convergence as Trauma and Business Plan’, in: Thorburn, David & Henry Jenkins & Brad Seawell (eds.), Rethinking Media Change: The Aesthetics of Transition, Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 191-200.
·       Willis, Holly (2005) New Digital Cinema: Reinventing the Moving Image, London: Wallflower Press.
·       McKernan, Brian (2005) Digital Cinema: The Revolution in Cinematography, Postproduction and Distribution, New York: Mc Graw-Hill.
·       Klinger, Barbara (2006) Beyond the Multiplex: Cinema, New Technologies and the Home, Berkeley: University of California Press.
·       Hancock, David & Charlotte Jones (eds.) (2007) Digital Cinema: Rollout, Business Models and Forecasts to 2012, London: Screen Digest.
·       # Rodowick, David N. (2007) The Virtual Life of Film, Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP.
·       Iordanova, Dina (2008) Budding Channels of Peripheral Cinema: The Long Tail of Global Film Circulation, San Francisco: Blurb (www.blurb.com).
·       Neeve, Frank de (2008) ‘The Hurdles in Programming Alternative Content’, in: The EDFC Guide to Alternative Content in Cinema, September 2008. URL: http://www.edcf.net/edcf_docs/edcf_alt_content_for_dcinema.pdf or http://www.bamart.be/files/FrankDeNeeve_Programmingalternativecontent_2008.pdf
·       Bennett, James & Tom Brown (eds.) (2008) Film and Television after DVD, London: Routledge.
·       Snickars, Pelle & Patrick Vonderau (eds.) (2009) The Youtube Reader, London: Wall Flower Press.
·       Tryon, Chuck (2009) Reinventing Cinema: Movies in the Age of Media Convergence, New Brunswick: Rutgers UP.
·       Cineaste, vol. 35, no. 2 (Spring 2010), URL: http://www.cineaste.com/articles/repertory-film-programming-a-critical-symposium.
·       Sinclair, Nicola (2010) ‘Whose cinema is it anyway? Alternative content and cultural democracy’, blog post December 17, 2010. URL: http://supportyourlocalcinema.com/profiles/blogs/whose-cinema-is-it-anyway.
·       http://filmthinktank.org/fileadmin/thinktank_downloads/ThinkTank_d-Cinema_Background.pdf (2010).
·       Pariser, Eli (2011) The Filter Bubble: What the Internet is Hiding From You, London; Penguin Books. See also: www.thefilterbubble.com
·       Reis, Jon (2011) Think Outside the Boxoffice: the Ultimate Guide to Film Distribution and Marketing in the Digital Age, Hybrid Cinema. URL:  http://www.thinkoutsidetheboxoffice.com/
·       Crofts, Chartlotte (2011) ‘Cinema Distribution in the Age of Digital Projection’, in: Post Script vol. 30, no. 2 (2011) pp. 82-98.
·       Totaro, Donato (2011) ‘Bye-Bye Celluloid? Are We Seeing the Dawn of a New Digital Era?’, in: Off Screen vol.15, no. 10 (October 31st 2011), URL: http://www.offscreen.com/index.php/pages/essays/bye-bye_celluloid/.
·       European Audiovisual Observatory & MEDIA Salles (2011) The European Digital Cinema Report: Understanding Digital Cinema Roll Out, Strassbourg, December 2011. Zie: http://www.obs.coe.int/oea_publ/european_digital_cinema.html
·       Iordanova, Dina & Stuart Cunningham (eds.) (2012) Digital Disruption: Cinema Moves On-line, St. Andrews: St. Andrews Film Studies.
·       Hadjioannou, Markos (2012) From Light to Byte: Toward an Ethics of Digital Cinema, University of Minnesota Press.
·       Taylor, Norman (2012) Cinematic Perspectives on Digital Culture: Consorting with the Machine, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
·       # David Bordwell (2012) Pandora’s Digital Box: Films, Files, and the Future of Movies, URL: http://www.davidbordwell.net/books/pandora.php. Review: http://realreeljournal.com/2012/07/10/pandora/
·       # Lobato, Ramon (2012a) Shadow Economics of Cinema: Mapping Informal Film Distribution, London: BFI/Palgrave MacMillan.
·       Ramon Lobato (2012b), ‘A sideways view of the film economy in an age of digital piracy’, in: NECSUS European Journal of Media Studies no. 1 (Spring 2012), URL: http://www.necsus-ejms.org/a-sideways-view-of-the-film-economy-in-an-age-of-digital-piracy-by-ramon-lobato/
·       ‘From 35mm to DCP: A Critical Symposium on the Changing Face of Motion Picture Exhibition’, in: Cineaste, vol. 37, no. 4 (Fall 2012) pp. 32-42.
·       Belton, John (2012) ‘Introduction: Digital Cinema’ (dossier), in: Film History: An International Journal vol. 24 no. 2 (2012) pp. 131-134.
·       Dalton, Michael (2012) ‘The Argument for Day & Date Release’, blog text Movie Parliament, 2 October 2012, URL: http://www.movieparliament.com/articles/the-argument-for-day-date-release
·       Lotman, Ellen (2012), ‘Passionate about Celluloid’, in: Oosterhout, R. et. al. (eds.) Shooting Time: Cinematographers on Cinematography, Rotterdam: Post Editions/ NSC, pp. 84-104.
·       Saetervadet, Torkell (2012), FIAF Digital Projection Guide, FIAF, Norwegian Film Institute, Giornate del Cinema Muto. See also http://www.fiafnet.org/uk/publications/fbs_generalTopics.html.

·       # Balsom, Erika (2013), Exhibiting Cinema in Contemporary Art, Amsterdam: Amsterdam UP. Full text online, URL: http://www.oapen.org/search?identifier=442726
·       # Tryon, Chuck (2013), On Demand Culture: Digital Delivery and the Future of Movies, New Brunswick: Rutgers UP.
·       Barker, Martin (2013) Live to Your Local Cinema: The Remarkable Rise of Livecasting.London: Palgrave Macmillan.
·       Barker, Martin (2013) ‘Live at a Cinema Near You: How Audiences Respond to Digital Streaming of the Arts’, in: Radbourne, Jennifer & Hilary Glow & Katya Johanson (eds.) The Audience Experience: A Critical Analysis of Audiences in the Performing Arts, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. ...
·       Heidsiek, Birgit (2013) ‘The VPF System – Exhibitors’ Feedback: The Terms of Transparency’, in: Europa Distribution - blog (European Network of Independent Film Distributors), 8 July 2013 URL: 9 July 2013, URL: http://www.europa-distribution.org/the-vpf-system-the-terms-of-transparency-by-birgit-heidsiek/
·       Heidsiek, Birgit (2013) ‘The VPF System - Distributors’ Feedback: Will The VPF Ever Vanish?’, in: Europa Distribution - blog (European Network of Independent Film Distributors), 9 July 2013 URL: 9 July 2013, URL: http://www.europa-distribution.org/the-vpf-system-distributors-feedback-will-the-vpf-ever-vanish-by-birgit-heidsiek/
·       Wiseman, Andreas (2013) ‘UK Distribution: A date with VoD’, in: Screen Daily, 7 October 2013, URL: http://www.screendaily.com/features/uk-distribution-a-date-with-vod/5062241.article
·       http://www.screendigest.com/news/2013_12_europa_cinemas_conference_digital_cinema_workshop_summary/view.html
·       Coquil, Selena (2014) ‘Cinema and Second Screen Applications’, in: Transmedia Lab 22 July 2014. URL: http://www.transmedialab.org/en/the-blog-en/cinema-and-second-screen-applications-focus-on-the-film-app-and-the-disney-second-screen-experience/
·       http://www.cinemauk.org.uk/2014/11/cea-conference-a-sell-out-success/ (November 28th, 2014).
·       Curtin, Michael & Jennifer Holt & Kevin Sanson (eds. 2014) Distribution Revolution: Conversations About the Digital Future of Film and Television. Oakland: University of California Press.
·       Holt, Jennifer & Kevin Sanson (eds 2014) Connected Viewing: Selling, Streaming & Sharing Media in the Digital Age. New York: Routledge.
·       Candler, Sheri (2014) ‘Day and Date Film Release Conversation’, blog post 18 September 2014, URL: http://www.shericandler.com/2014/09/18/day-and-date-film-release-conversation/
·       Gaudreault, André & Philippe Marion (2015) The End of Cinema? A Medium in Crisis in the Digital Age. New York: Columbia University Press.
·       La Combe, Claire (2015) ‘European Film Forum: (Re)open(ed) Talks on the Film Market in the Digital Era’. URL: http://www.europa-distribution.org/european-film-forum-reopened-talks-on-the-film-market-in-the-digital-era/
·       Karagosian, Michael (2015) ‘What’s wrong with the DCP?’ in: Digital Cinema Report March 3 2015. URL: http://digitalcinemareport.com/article/what%E2%80%99s-wrong-dcp#.VQG0D2arsou
1.2 International analysis of copyright and digital cinema exhibition:
(This list is in chronological order)
·       Segrave, Kerry (2003) Piracy in the Motion Picture Industry, Jefferson NC: McFarland.
·       Lasica, J.D. Darknet (2005) Hollywood’s War Against the Digital Generation, Hoboken: J. Wiley and Sons.
·       Gillespie, Tarleton (2007) Wired Shut: Copyright and the Shape of Digital Culture, Cambridge: MIT Press.
·       Hilderbrand, Lucas (2009) Inherent Vice: Bootleg Histories of Videotape and Copyright, Durham: Duke UP.
·       Anderson, Chris (2009) Free: The Future of a Radical Price, New York: Hyperion.
·       Aigrain, Philippe (2011) Sharing: Culture and the Economy in the Internet Age, Amsterdam: Amsterdam UP. See also http://www.sharing-thebook.com.
·       Lobato, Ramon (2012) Shadow Economics of Cinema: Mapping Informal Film Distribution, London: BFI/Palgrave MacMillan.
·       Decherney, Peter (2012) Hollywood’s Copyright Wars: From Edison to the Internet, New York: Columbia UP.
1.3 Digitalization, Digitization and Film Heritage:
(This list is in chronological order)
·       Mazzanti, Nicola (ed.) (2011) ‘Challenges for the Digital Era for Film Heritage Institutions’, final report December 2011, URL: http://www.dae-filmheritage.eu/final-study.html (Digital Agenda for European Film Heritage), also available at: http://ec.europa.eu/avpolicy/docs/library/studies/heritage/final_report_en.pdf
·       Report ‘Digital Dilemma 2’ (2011). URL: http://www.oscars.org/science-technology/council/projects/digitaldilemma2/ (Digital Dilemma 2, a report, published in 2011, by the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts & Sciences, in cooperation with the Library of Congress's National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program, NDIIPP). See also: http://www.theasc.com/blog/2012/02/13/the-digital-dilemma-2-dilemma/
·       Rapfogel, Jared & Andrew Lambert (eds.) (2011) ‘Film Preservation: A Critical Symposium’, in: Cineaste vol. 36, no. 4 (Fall 2011).
·       Verbruggen, Edwin & Johan Oomen (eds.) (2012) ‘Online Access to Audiovisual Heritage’ (second EU-Screen Status Report), 23 July 2012. URL: http://pro.europeana.eu/documents/864473/82a7fb98-6be2-4572-b211-e1656837f6f1
·       Noordegraaf, Julia, Performing the Archive: Tracing Audiovisual Heritage in the Digital Age (forthcoming).
·       Research project DIASTOR: http://www.research-projects.uzh.ch/p18079.htm

2.1 Film Distribution:
(This list is in alfabetical order)
·       Acland, Charles R., Screen Traffic: Movies, Multiplexes and Global Culture, Durham: Duke UP, 2003.              
·       Anderson, Chris, The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More, New York: Hyperion, 2006. See also: http://longtail.typepad.com/ of http://www.thelongtail.com.
·       Cones, John W., The Feature Film Distribution Deal: A Critical Analysis of the Single Most Important Film Industry Agreement and How the Motion Picture Industry Operates, Carbondale/ Edwardsville: Southern Illinois UP, 2002 (sec. ed., originally 1997).
·       Iordanova, Dina, Budding Channels of Peripheral Cinema: The Long Tail of Global Film Circulation, San Francisco: Blurb, 2008 (www.blurb.com).
·       Lukk, T., Movie marketing. Opening the picture and giving its legs, Los Angeles: Silman-James Press, 1997.
·       Miller, T. et.al., Global Hollywood 2, London: BFI / University of California Press, 2004 (2nd ed.).
·       Puttnam, David, The Undeclared War: The Struggle for Control of the World’s Film Industry, London: HarperCollins, 1997.
·       Rosenbaum, Jonathan, Movie Wars. How Hollywood and the Media Conspire to Limit What Movies We Can See, Chicago: a Capella, 2000.
·       Stringer, Julian (ed.), Movie Blockbusters, London: Routledge, 2003.
·       Trumpbour, John, Selling Hollywood to the World: U.S. and European Struggles for Mastery of the Global Film Industry, 1920-1950, New York: Cambridge UP, 2002.
·       Vogel, Harold L. Entertainment Industry Economics: A Guide for Financial Service, Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2010 (8th edition).
·       Willinsky, Barbara, Sure Seaters: The Emergence of Art House Cinema, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001.
·       Wyatt, Justin, High Concept: Movies and Marketing in Hollywood, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994. 
·       Wyatt, Justin, ‘From Roadshowing to Saturation Release: Majors, Independents, and Marketing/Distribution Innovations’, in: Lewis, Jon (ed.) The New American Cinema, Durham & London: Duke UP, 1998, pp. 64-86.
2.2 Relevant website, digital film exhibition and distribution
Institutional sites
International (European)
·       http://www.mediasalles.it/dgt_online/index.htm (DGT Online Informer, newsletter)
·       http://cicae.org/en
·       http://www.obs.coe.int/ (European Audiovisual Observatory)
·       www.edcf.net (European Digital Cinema Forum)
·       http://www.cineasia.com/cineeurope (Trade Show ‘CineEurope’ (Barcelona), organized by UNIC)
·       www.cineuropa.org (Brussels)
·       www.arthouseconvergence.org (USA)
·       http://www.ihs.com/products/screen-digest/index.aspx (IHS Screen Digest)
·       www.livecinemaevents.com
·       www.nfceonline.com  (Conference 2011, New Forms of Cinema Exhibition)
Personal blogsites
·       www.hddc.co.uk (Peter Wilson)
·       www.mkpe.com (Michael Karagosian)
·       www.manice.net (Olivier Hillaire)
·       www.digitalcinemareport.com (Nick Dager)
·       http://www.cineserver.org/news-archives.html (Frank de Neeve)
·       http://www.kommer.com (Kommer Kleijn, SBC)
Film Studies
·       www.necs.org (European Network for Cinema and Media Studies)
·       www.cinemastudies.org  (Society for Cinema Studies)
·       MA Film Curating, Birkbeck University, London.
·       MSc in Film, Exhibition and Curation, University of Edinburgh
·       MA Film and Screen Cultures, University of Roehampton, London
Last but not least: practical training courses and conferences
1.      ‘DigiTraining Plus’, organized by Media Salles, since 2002: http://www.mediasalles.it/training/training.htm http://www.mediasalles.it/digitalk2012/index.html
2.      ‘Art Cinéma = Action Management’ (ACAM), training courses organized by CICAE during the Venice Film Festival since 2004: http://cicae.org/en/international-training
3.      ‘Europa Cinemas Audience Development Innovation Lab’, organized by Europa Cinemas in collaboration with the festival ‘Il Cinema Ritrovato’, since 2005. This educational sidebar is also informally called the ‘Bologna Seminar’. The 2013 edition was dedicated to the subject of  ‘Engaging Communities in the Digital Era’, in 2014 the subject was ‘New Challenges and Approaches With New Audiences’, the 2015 edition focused on ‘Creating Demand for a Diverse Cinema’.
4.      ‘Independent Cinema Office’ organizes several training programs in the UK, such as the workshops ‘The Business and Creativity of Programming Cultural Films’.
5.      ‘Developing Your Film Festival’, a training course organized since 2011 each year at the Motovun Film Festival in Croatia.
6.      Europa Cinemas organizes yearly conferences for its members, in 2015 the 20th edition will be held.
2.3 Looking back in melancholy
Full realization of the digital era in cinema will start at the moment that 35mm-film stock has vanished completely in global commercial circulation. This moment is expected to materialize soon.
Comparison between digital projection and 35mm projection
1.      Technical: is digital projection delivering the same image quality as 35mm? Some experts bemoan a loss of detail. For a more positive perspective, see among others: http://www.filmcomment.com/entry/this-is-dcp-is-that-it
2.      Financial: is digital projection more cost efficient or more expensive in the long run, for programming regular releases and programming alternative content?
3.      Legal: is digital projection offering a better protection against illegal trade and piracy than 35mm?
4.      Environmental: what is the score of digital projection in the perspective of the environmental footprint (use of raw materials, need of transportation), compared to 35mm?
5.      Archival perspective: is storage of digital files safe and trustworthy? For a negative answer on this last question see:
2.4 Some documentaries about cinemas
·       THE REP: A DOCUMENTARY (Morgan White 2012), URL: www.therepseries.com
·       OUT OF PRINT: THE SURVIVAL AND REVIVAL OF 35mm AT THE NEW BEVERLY CINEMA (Julia Marchese, 2014). URL: http://iheartnewbev.com/index.html
·       SIDE BY SIDE (Chris Kenneally, USA 2012), http://www.tribecafilm.com/tribecafilm/side-by-side.html#.UHQM5Y59t6A
·       DE VERBORGEN MAN (Kim van Engelen, NL 2012).
·       THE LAST PROJECTIONIST (Thomas Lawes, UK 2011).
·       CINEMA JENIN: THE STORY OF A DREAM (Marcus Vetter, 2012), a documentary, reporting about the restoration of a cinema in Palestine. Four years earlier, the German director had made a documentary in Palestine: DAS HERZ VON JENIN (2008).
·       CINE AMBULANTE: LIGHT IN TIMES OF DARKNESS (Ramon Gieling, 2002), documentary about a travelling projectionist, offering open air screenings in Spain.
·       TICKET TO JERUSALEM (Rashid Masharawi, 2002), fiction film about a wandering Palestinian movie projectionist, travelling from refugee camp to refugee camp, to show movies to the children (based on experiences with the ‘Mobile Cinema Project’).
·       POR PRIMERA VEZ (For the First Time, directed by Octavio Cortázar, 1968): classic Cuban documentary about travelling projectionists, showing Chaplin’s MODERN TIMES in remote villages.